Translating Proper Names through Foreignizing/Domesticating Strategies: The Case Studies of To the Lighthouse and The Waves

Document Type : Original Article

Author

Assistant Professor of English Literature, English Language Department, Faculty of Literature and Languages, Arak University, Arak, Iran

10.22034/efl.2022.332894.1150

Abstract

The current study explores the way the six Persian translators of Woolf’s two novels, The Waves (TWS) and To the Lighthouse (TTL), have translated the proper names (PNs). Also, how the PNs might be connected to the translators’ style through foreignizing/domesticating strategies that the translators have used through the optional shift. Also, how the translator shows his discursive presence may be related to how the translator may employ some recurring patterns for translating the PNs through some strategies. The procedure of ‘retention of the name’ is the nearest to foreignization and the farthest from domestication; the procedure of ‘replacement of the name by a TL name’ is the nearest to domestication and farthest from foreignization. Comparing the strategies, we can see that Najafipour has used the foreignizing and Ghebraei foreignizing and domesticating strategies differently. Also, Bejanyian tends to make the TL sound foreignized; Hosseini shows a pattern of domestication or normalization. Both Daryush and Keyhan have tried to keep the middle ground, though offering a tendency to use foreignizing strategies with a higher propensity. The final result shows that the six Persian translators have translated the PNs differently, whether using foreignizing or domesticating strategies.

Keywords

1. Introduction

All through the history of translation studies, translating proper names (henceforth, PNs) has been confronted with one critical question: whether to translate the PNs or not? If yes, how, if not, why. As a general premise, it has been argued that since the PNs are regarded as a part of the culture of any language and society, it seems to be resistant to translation, if not untranslatable. As another premise, it can be argued that the PNs can be categorized into different labels, some translatable because they have equivalents in the TL; some resistant to translation because one part of it may have an equivalent, and another part may have no equivalent in the TL; some untranslatable because there can be found no one to one correspondence between the PNs in the SL and the TL. Regarding the translatability of the PNs, two challenging questions might be raised: how the PNs have been rendered into another language through the strategies applied by the translators; and whether or not these strategies have something to do with the kinds of translation the translators have done.  (for example, see Hermans (1996); Schiavi (1996); Baker (2000); Bosseaux (2000)).

Aside from the strategies used by the translators in translating the PNs, the critical issue is how these strategies have something to do with the kinds of translation a translator may produce as the final product. As the translator may make some changes in the process of translating, whether using obligatory or optional shifts, the strategies may be connected, in one way or another, to how the translator may project his discursive presence in the process of translation. Furthermore, how the translator shows his discursive presence may be related to how the translator may employ some recurring patterns in using language, designated as the translator’s linguistic habits. How the translator uses some strategies, say for translating the PNs, may be connected to how he may use his linguistic habits in the form of some recurring linguistic patterns. These recurring patterns of the translator’s linguistic habits are called ‘the translator’s style’ for lack of a better term. As the ‘thumbprint’ (Baker1996), the style can be regarded as the recurring patterns of the translator’s linguistic habits, yielded mainly from the shifts made by the translator at the micro-level structure of the TT. If they get frequent, these shifts may affect the kind of translation as the final product, i.e., foreignized/domesticated translation. As its primary concern, this paper tries to show there is a direct relationship between the strategies used by the translator and the way the translator may show his style (Baker2000), hence, his discursive presence (Bosseaux2000) and preferably, his voice (Hermans1996) in the translated narrative texts.

It seems that there should be a correlation between the way a translator uses domesticating/foreignizing strategies and the way he shows his discursive presence/absence in the process of translating into another language in that it can be related, in one way or another, to the shifts a translator may intend to make in an optional and obligatory way. Shift or better, ‘translation shifts,’ as firstly used by Catford (1965), among others, is defined as any change that takes place in the process of transferring the SL meanings into the TT and is thus a central concept in the study of translations: 

Shifts in the translation are known as those changes which occur or may occur in the process of translation. Most of the time, they result from dealing with the systemic differences between ST and TT languages (Baker et al. (1998, p. 226)).

Hence, the study of shifts needs to distinguish between1) obligatory, 2) optional shifts, and 3) non-shift. Obligatory shifts may affect the final product, hence, the translator’s discursive presence, voice, and style at the micro-level in the TT. On the other hand, the optional shifts may occur without any linguistic or cultural necessity obliged by the translator. Furthermore, non-shifts may have shift-like impacts since they involve transferring an unchanging element into a different language and culture. Each shift may increase or decrease the ST and the TT distance. This ‘distance’ relates to how a translator may use domesticating/foreignizing strategies. The more the translator uses domesticating strategies, the more the distance is increased between the ST and the TT; the more the translator may use foreignizing strategies, the more the distance is decreased between the SL and the TT. As for non-shift, it may also act as a means of foreignization than domestication.

Of these three kinds of shift, it seems that the optional shift has a way to do with the translator's discursive presence; hence, his voice and style in that it is through this shift that the translator intends to interfere in the TT through the various options he has at his disposal from the repertoire of the TL. In other words, he becomes much more active and involved in translation through the dynamic action he does as the main agent of the translation. Optional shifts thus always affect the agency of the translator. As the main translation agent, the translator may do many things to make his translation ready for the readership. Of the various things the translator may do, one important and determining thing is how the translator makes a ‘choice’ among the linguistic options the TL puts at his disposal. Another challenging issue is how the translator may repeat, consciously or unconsciously, some recurring patterns in using such linguistic items. The translator may use shifts, mostly optional but sometimes obligatory, to bring about some recurring linguistic patterning, rarely consciously, all through translation. If this recurring linguistic patterning gets frequent, it becomes a part of the linguistic ‘habit’ of the translator as the main agent of the translation. This linguistic ‘habit’ if getting frequent, becomes the “thumbprint” (Baker, (2000, p. 245)) of the translator, setting the path for what has been called ‘the translator’s style’ in translation studies in recent years. As the thumbprint, the style has been defined as some unconscious and uncontrollable patterning of the translator’s linguistic habits through the shifts he may make in translation. In this sense, the translator’s style is made of the optional choice selected from the repertoire of the TL. Therefore, to claim that style is a choice is to claim that there is an agent who selects the specific structures over others at his disposal among the repertoire of the TL. In addition, when the translator feels free to make an optional ‘choice,’ he intends to show that he is attempting to make room for himself in the TL to emphasize his discursive presence, and preferably, his voice, in the target language and culture, on which Hermans (1996) and Schiavi (1996) have elaborated.

The individual translator’s presence, voice, and style may lead to what Venuti (2008) has termed the translator’s visibility in The Translator’s Invisibility. The way the translator attempts to make ‘choice’ through optional shifts may lead to his visibility in his translation. In this sense, (in) visibility relates to the translator’s foreignizing/domesticating strategies. The more the translator becomes visible, the more he has used foreignizing strategies, and the more he has used domesticating strategies, the more he becomes invisible in his translation. Also, (in) visibility may be connected, in one way or another, to the translator’s style: the more visible the translator becomes, the more his style is popped up; the more he becomes invisible, the more his style is faded away. 

In sum, it seems that foreignizing/domesticating strategies are connected, in one way, to the optional shifts the translator makes, and, in another way, to how the translator may project his discursive presence, voice, and style in the translated texts. Furthermore, how the translator uses these strategies may be connected to how he may use his linguistic habits in the form of some recurring linguistic patterns. This paper tries to show that the way the six Persian translators of Woolf’s two novels, i.e., The Waves (TWS1963) and to the Lighthouse (TTL1927), have translated the PNs might be connected to the translators’ style through foreignizing/domesticating strategies they have used through the optional shifts employed in the process of their translations. This paper takes Leppihalme’s model as its theoretical framework to see what the six Persian translators have done while translating the PN into Persian in these two novels.

2. Review of the Related Literature

As for the related literature on translating the PNs, a lot of papers have been written in recent years in which they have tried to tackle the topic in different, challenging ways (for instance, see Ahanizadeh, 2012; Anabisarab 2009Bosseaux, 2000; Zabir & Haroon, 2018; and Zarei & Norouzi 2014, among others). Bosseaux (2000) is one of the earliest translation scholars who have tackled translating the PNs in Woolf’s TWS and not TTL. Yet none of these studies have approached translating the PNs based on Leppihalme’s Procedures and Venuti’s foreignizing/domesticating strategies concerning the translator's discursive presence, voice, and style, especially Woolf’s two novels.

3. Method

As for translating the PNs, different models and approaches have been suggested, with Leppihalme’s (1997) model and Venuti’s (2008) two main strategies, among others. Leppihalme (1997) proposes the most basic translation strategies for the PNs: “to keep the name unaltered, to change it, and to omit it” (pp. 78-9; see the following diagrams and tables). According to Leppihalme, "the solution of retention of the names as such (ia)… was adopted in close to 70% of instances. Most of the names were naturally unchanged but were appropriate both lexical and orthographical changes are required" (p. 99). Leppihalme believes that moving from (ia) toward (iiib) shows that the translators have used minimum effort to get maximum benefits. As an applicable, comprehensive, and friendly-used model, Leppihalme’s model consists of three main components, subdivided into sub-groups that can be easily numbered, counted, and quantified. More than that, this model can encompass other strategies suggested by previous scholars. Last but not least, it can be put on a continuum ranging from foreignizing to domesticating strategies presented by Venuti. ‘Retention of the name’ (I) is the nearest strategy to foreignization and the farthest from domestication; ‘replacing the name by the TL name’ (iib) is the nearest strategy to domestication and farthest from foreignization. Between strategy (I) and strategy (iib), there are different ranges of foreignizing/domesticating strategies. ‘Omission’ strategy (III), especially (iiib), is the freest strategy, showing that the translator has preferred not to translate the PNs. The following diagram is self-evident:

Table 1

Leppihalme’s Model Related to Venuti’s Strategies

Foreignizing Strategies

Domesticating Strategies

1) Retention of name (either unchanged or in its conventional TL form); with three subcategories

(2) Replacement of name by another (beyond the changes required by convention); with two subcategories:

(1a) use the name as such;

(2a) replace the name by another SL name;

(1b) use the name, adding some guidance;

(2b) replace the name with a TL name.

(1c) use the name, adding a detailed explanation, for example, a footnote.

 

The important point is that the translator’s discursive presence, voice, and style can mainly be related to foreignizing strategies; however, the translator can keep the writer's original style using domesticating strategies.

3.1 Corpus 

Two novels by Woolf, along with the six respective Persian translations, are selected: The Waves and To the Lighthouse, the former translated by Daryush (1977)Najafipour (1998), and Ghebraei (2012) and the latter by Bejaniyan (1991)Hosseini (1994), and Keyhan (2008). Firstly, the proper names of the main characters of the two novels are chosen and compared with their respective Persian equivalents. Secondly, the proper names of the places and locations are randomly selected from two novels and their corresponding Persian equivalents. Thirdly, the proper names of the plants and the flowers are randomly chosen. Finally, the proper names are seen in two novels and their six Persian translations. 

3.2. Data analysis

As it is clear from table number 2, the three Persian translators have tried to translate the original PNs using ‘retention of the name,’ save for some minor changes in the phonemes of some names such as ‘Virgil,’ ‘Elvedon,’ ‘Louis,’ and ‘Lucretius.’ Comparing the three translators, Daryush has attempted to keep the French pronunciation of the PNs.

Table 2

PNs in Three Persian Translations of TWS

PNs in TWS

Daryush

Najafipour

Ghebraei

Bernard

برنارد

برنارد

برنارد

Susan

سوزان

سوزان

سوزان

Rhoda

رودا

ردا

رودا

Neville

نویل

نویل

نویل

Louis

لویز

لوئیس

لوئیس

Mrs. Constable

خانم کنستابل

خانم کنستابل

خانم کانستبل

Elvedon

ال وه دون

الودون

الودن

Miss Hudson

خانم هادسن

خانم هودسن

خانم هادسن

Virgil

ورژیل

ویرجیل

ویرژیل

Lucrettius

لوکرسیوس

لوکرتیوس

لوکرتیوس

 

 

Table 3

PNs in Three Persian Translations of TTL

Keyhan

Hosseini

Bejaniyan

PNs in TTL

خانم رمزی

خانم رمزی

خانم رامسی

Mrs. Ramsay

پل رایتی

پاول رایلی

پل رایلی

Paul Rayley

پانسفورت

پاونسفورت

پونسفورت

Paunce Forte

تنسلی

تنسلی

تانسلی

Tansley

آقای بنکس

آقای بنکس

آقای بانکس

Mr. Bankes

پادوآ

پاودا

پادو

Padua

ویرژیل

ویرژیل

ویرجیل

Virgil

خانم مک نب

خانم مکناب

خانم مک نب

Mrs. Mcnab

السی

الزی

السی

Elsay

لیلی بریسکو

لی لی بریسکو

لی لی بریسکو

Lily Brisco

باجر

باجر

بادجر

Badger

جاسپر

یاسپر

جاسپر

Jasper

خانوم بکویث

خانوم بک‌ویت

خانوم بکویت

Mrs. Beckwith

راجر

راجر

روژو

Roger

مک الیستر

مکالیستر

مک آلیستر

Macalister

کروم

کروم

کروم

Croom

مارلو

مارلو

مارلو

Marlow

برکلی

برکلی

برکلی

Berkeley

هیوم

هیوم

هیوم

Hume

جورج مانینگ

جورج مانینگ

جورج مانینگ

George Manning

3.2.1 PNs of Places in the Waves (TWS)

As Tables 2 and 3 show, the translators have applied different foreignizing/domesticating strategies in different ways and proportions. Najafipour has mostly tried to keep the original names in his translation. Daryush and Ghebraei used ‘retention’ and ‘replacement’ strategies simultaneously.

Table 4

PNs of Places in TWS

PNs for Places in TTL

Daryush

Najafipour

Ghebraei

Ladies’ garden

پرچین باغ بانوان

لیدیز گاردن

باغ خانم‌ها

Kitchen garden

باغچه‌ی آشپزخانه

کیچن گاردن

باغچه

Brisbane

باغچه‌ی آشپزخانه

بریسبان

بریزبین

Kitchen garden

بریزبین

کیچی گاردن

باغچه‌ی سبزیکاری

Oxford

اکسفورد

آکسفرد

آکسفورد

Cambridge

کیمبریچ

کمبریج

کیمبریج

Edinburg

ادینبورو

ادینبورو

ادینبرو

Rome

رم

رم

رم

Paris

پاریس

پاریس

پاریس

Berlin

برلن

برلن

برلین

3.2.2 PNs of Places in TTL

As for translating the proper names of the places and geographical locations, the three translators of TTL have mostly tried to keep the original names with some minor changes.

Table 5

PNs of Places in TTL

Keyhan

Hosseini

Bejaniyan

PNs for Places in TWS

ادینبورو

ادینبرو

ادینبرو

Edinburgh

جنوب شهر

مایل اند رود

مایل اند رود

Mille end road

فینلی

فین لی

فینلی

Finlay

دانشگاه بریستول

بریستول

بریستون

Bristol

کالج بالیول

بالیول

کالج بالیول دراکسفورد

Balliol

یوستن

یوستن

ایستگاه اوستون

Euston

دره گریسونز

گریسونز

دره گریزون

Grisons

خیابان برامپتون

برامپتون رد

جاده‌ی برومتون

Bronpton Road

هبرید

هبریدز

هبرید

Hebrides

جزایر اسکای

جزایر اسکای

جزیره‌ی اسکای

Isles Of Skye

بالاکلاوا

بالاکلاوا

الاکلاوا

Balaclava

پولینزی

جزایر پلینزی

پولینزی

Polynesie

جاده‌ی وستمورلند

وستمورلند

جاده‌ی وستمورلند

West Moreland

کوه وزوو

آتشفشان وزو

آتشفشان وزو

Vesuvius

ساوث همپتن

ساوثمتین

سوثامپتون

Southampton

نمازخانه سیستین

نمازخانه سیستین

کلیسای سیستین

Sistine chapel

ریکمنزورث

ریکمنزوورث

دیکمانسفورت

Rickmanswarth

سوربیتون

سوربیتون

سوریبیتون

Surbiton

گلدرزگرین

گلدرزگرین

گولدرزگرین

Golders Green

همپتون کورت

هامپتون کورت

همپتون کورت

Hampton court

3.2.3 General PNs in TWS

As for translating the general proper names, the three translators of TTL have mainly tried to keep and replace the original names with some other names.

Table 6

General PNs in TWS

General PNs in TWS

Daryush

Najafipour

Ghebraei

Christmas

میلاد مسیح

کریسمس

کریسمس

Easter

عید فصیح

عید پاک

عید پاک

June

تیر

ژوئن

ژوئن

Missionaries

مرسلینی

میسون ها

هیئت های مذهبی

Pence

حذف

پنسی

پنی

Cricket

چلتوب

کریکت

کریکت

July

ژوئیه

ژولای

ژوئیه

Elm

درختان سرخدار

نارون

نارون

Don Juan

دون ژوان

دون ژوئن

دن ژوان

Oak

صنوبر

بلوط

بلوط

3.2.4 PNs of Flowers in TTL

As for translating the proper names of the flowers, the three Persian translators of TTL have replaced the original names with the appropriate Persian equivalents.

Table 7

PNs of Flowers in TTL

Keyhan

Hosseini

Bejaniyan

PNs for Flowers in TTL

گل‌های سیکلمه

پنجه مریم

پنجه مریم

cyclamen

درخت کلماتیسی

گل مینا

جاکمانا

jacmanna

حذف

سوسن‌های مشعلی

گیاه تریتوما

tritoma

دسته بارهنگ

بوته‌های بارهنگ

بوته بارهنگ

Colony of plantains

بنفشه

گل بنفشه

بنفشه‌ها

violets

لاله

سوسن

گل‌های سریش

asphodels

گل کوکب

گل کوکب

گل کوکب

dahlias

میخک

گل میخک

قرنظی

artichokes

شقایق‌های وحشی

دانه‌های خشخاش

گل‌های شقایق

poppies

دسته‌های چوب سدر

بافه‌های سدر

شاخه‌های مقدس سدر

cedar

گیاهی دریایی

علف دریایی

گیاهی دریایی

Sea weed

3.2.6 PNs of Foods in TWS

As for translating the proper names of the foods, the three Persian translators of the Waves have mostly replaced the original foods with the appropriate Persian equivalents.

Table 8

PNs of Foods in TWS

PNs for Foods in TWS

Daryush

Najafipour

Ghebraei

Bran pie

کلوچه‌ی سبوس

برن پای

کلوچۀ سبوس

Buns

کلوچه

کلوچه

کیک

Ham sandwiches

ساندویچ ژامبون

ساندویچ

ساندویچ ژامبون

Steam

سماور

چای

سماور

Beef

گوشت گاو

گوشت گاو

گوشت گوسفند

Mutton

گوشت بره

گوشت گوسفند

گوشت گوساله

Sausage

سوسیس

سوسیس

سوسیس

Mash

گوشت کوبیده

خمیر

پوره سیب زمینی

Worcester

چک آپ

سس ورسستر

ووستر

Custard

مسقطی

فرنی

فرنی

As the data collection shows, the six Persian translators of Woolf's two novels have used different foreignizing/domesticating strategies through other ‘choices’ they have made via optional shifts at their disposal from the repertoire of the Persian TL. The two following tables show how the Persian translators of the waves and TTL have used Leppihalme’s strategies, respectively.

Table 9

Total PNs in TWS Based on Leppihalme

PNs in TWS

Daryush

Najafipour

Ghebraei

Bernard

iaa

iaa

Iaa

Susan

iaa

iaa

Iaa

Rhoda

iab

iaa

Iab

Neville

iaa

iaa

Iaa

Louis

Iab

iaa

Iaa

Mrs. Constable

Iab

iab

Iaa

Elvedon

iab

iab

Iaa

Miss Hudson

iaa

iab

Iaa

Virgil

iab

iaa

Iab

Lucrettius

Iab

iab

Iaa

Christmas

Iib

iaa

Iaa

Easter

Iibd

iib

Iib

June

Iib

iia

Iia

Missionaries

Iib

iab

Iib

Pence

Iiia

iab

Iib

Cricket

Iib

iaa

Iaa

July

Iib

iab

Iib

Elm

Iibd

iib

iib

Don Juan

Iab

iab

Iaa

Oak

Iibd

iib

iib

Ladies’ garden

Iiba

iaa

Iibc

Kitchen harden

Iiba

iaa

Iiic

Brisbane

Iaa

iaa

Iab

Kitchen garden

iiia

iab

Iiba

Oxford

Iaa

iaa

Iaa

Cambridge

Iab

iab

Iaa

Edinburg

Iab

iab

iab

Rome

Iaa

iaa

Iaa

Paris

Iab

iab

Iab

Berlin

Iab

iab

Iaa

Bran pie

Iiba

iaa

Iiba

Buns

Iib

iib

Iib

Ham sandwiches

Iiba

iiic

Iiba

Steam

Iibd

iibd

Iibd

Beef

Iib

iib

Iib

Mutton

Iib

iib

Iib

Sausage

Iab

iab

Iab

Mash

Iibd

iibd

Iibd

Worcester

Iibd

iaa

Iab

Custard

iibd

iibd

iibd

Table 10

Total PNs in TTL Based on Leppihalme

PNs in TTL

Bejaniyan

Hosseini

Keyhan

Mrs. Ramsay

iaa

iab

iab

Paul Rayley

iab

iaa

iab

Paunce Forte

iab

iaa

iab

Tansley

iab

Iaa

Iaa

MrBankes

Iab

Iaa

Iaa

Padua

iab

Iab

Iaa

Virgil

iaa

Iab

Iab

Mrs. Mcnab

Iab

Iaa

iab

Elsay

Iaa

Iab

Iab

Lily Brisco

Iaa

iaa

iaa

Badger

Iaa

Iab

Iaa

Jasper

Iaa

Iab

Iaa

Mrs. Beckwith

Iab

iab

iaa

Roger

Iibd

Iaa

iaa

Macalister

Iab

Iaa

Iab

Croom

Iaa

Iaa

Iaa

Marlow

Iaa

Iaa

Iaa

Berkeley

Iaa

Iaa

Iaa

Hume

Iaa

Iaa

Iaa

George Manning

Iaa

Iaa

Iaa

Cyclamen

Iibd

Iibd

iab

Jacmanna

Iaa

Iib

iib

Tritoma

Iaa

iib

iiic

Colony of plantains

Iib

Iib

Iib

Violets

Iib

Iiba

iib

Asphodels

Iiba

Iib

iiia

Dahlias

Iib

Iib

Iib

Artichokes

Iib

Iiba

Iib

Poppies

Iibd

Iiba

Iibd

Cedar

Iiba

Iiba

Iiba

Seaweed

Iibd

Iib

Iibd

Edinburgh

Iia

Iia

Iia

Mille end road

Iaa

iab

iib

Finlay

Iaa

Iaa

Iaa

Bristol

Iba

iaa

Iba

Balliol

Iba

Iaa

Iba

Euston

Iba

Iaa

Iaa

Grisons

Iba

Iaa

Iba

Brompton Road

Iib

Iaa

Iib

Hebrides

Iab

Iaa

Iab

Skye

Iib

Iib

Iib

Balaclava

Iab

Iaa

Iaa

Polynesie

Iaa

Iba

Iaa

West Moreland

Iba

Iaa

Iba

Vesuvius

Ibb

Ibb

Ibb

Southampton

Iaa

Iab

iab

Sistine chapel

Iia

Iibd

iibd

Rickmanswarth

Iab

Iaa

Iaa

Surbiton

Iab

Iaa

Iaa

Golders Green

Iab

Iaa

Iaa

Hampton Court

Iaa

Iaa

Iaa

3.2.7 Tables Explained

  • The procedure iaa, i.e., ‘the retention of phonetic and graphological of a name,’ has been repeated 35 times in TWS and 67 times in TTL.
  • The procedure iab, i.e., ‘changing the phonetic and graphological of a name,’ has been repeated 33 times in TWS and 31 times in TTL.
  • The procedure iib, i.e., ‘replacing the name by a target language name,’ has been repeated 23 times in TWS and 21 times in TTL.
  • The procedure, iibd, i.e., ‘replacing a name by a different name in the TL’, is used 13 times in TWS and eight times in TTL.
  • The procedure, Iiia, i.e., ‘omission of the name but transferring the sense by another means,’ has been used two times in TWS and just once in TTL.
  • The procedure, iia, i.e., ‘replacing the name with another SL name,’ has been repeated twice in TWS and 4times in TTL.
  • The procedure, iiba, i.e., ‘replacing the name by a target language name plus some information and guidelines,’ has been used seven times in TWS and TTL.
  • The procedure, iibc, i.e., ‘the replacement of a noun without any explanation,’ has been repeated just once in TWS.
  • The procedure, iiic, i.e., ‘the omission of a part of a noun without any explanation,’ is used twice in TWS and once in TTL.
  • The procedure, iba, i.e., is repeated ten times just in TTL.
  • The last procedure, ibb, is repeated three times in TTL.

As the two tables show, each Persian translator of Woolf’s two novels has attempted to use Leppihalme’s strategies differently. The following table demonstrates the total Frequency of the application of Leppihalme’s strategies in the six Persian translations of the two novels:

Table 11

Total Frequency of Strategies in Six Persian Translations Based on Leppihalme

Frequency in 3 translations of the Waves

Frequency in 3 Translations of  TTL

Strategy

Sign

-

-

Retention of name (either unchanged or in its conventional TL form); with three subcategories:

(I)

-

-

use the name as such;

(ia)

35

67

retention of phonetic and graph logical of the name

iaa

33

31

changing the phonetic and graphological of the name

iab

-

-

use the name, adding some guidance;

ib

-

10

the reader is directed through explanation and description

iba

-

3

the reader is directed through a familiar name in the target culture

ibb

-

-

Use the name, adding a detailed explanation, for example, a footnote.

ic

-

-

Keep one part of the name and translate another part

iic

-

-

Replacement of name by another (beyond the changes required by convention); with two subcategories:

(II)

2

4

replace the name by another SL name

iia

23

21

replacement of the name by a TL name plus a footnote

iib

7

7

replacement of the name by a TL name plus some   information and guidance

iiba

-

-

replace the name with a footnote

iibb

1

-

replacement of the name without any explanation

iibc

13

8

replacement by a different name in the TL

iibd

-

-

Omission of name; with two subcategories:

(III)

2

1

omission of the name but transfer the sense by other means, for example, by a common noun;

iiia

-

-

omission of a part of a noun without any explanation

iiib

2

-

compensation of the omitted part of the noun through explanation or footnotes

iiic

The following diagram (figure 1) shows the distribution of the strategies used by the six Persian translators of Woolf’s two novels based on Leppihalme’s model.

 image

Figure 1. The Distribution of the Strategies 

 

The following table shows how each Persian translator of Woolf’s two novels has used Leppihalme’s strategies in different proportions.

Table 12

Total Frequency of Strategies Used by Each Translator Based on Leppihalme

N.

D.

Gh.

F. in TWS

H.

K.

B.

F. in TTL

Strategy

Sign

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Retention of name (either unchanged or in its conventional TL form); with three subcategories:

(I)

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

Use the name as such;

(ia)

13

8

14

35

28

20

19

67

Retention of phonetic and graph logical of the name

iaa

14

12

7

33

9

9

13

31

Changing the phonetic and graph logical of the name

iab

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

Use the name, adding some guidance;

ib

0

0

0

-

1

4

5

10

The reader is directed through explanation and description

iba

0

0

0

-

1

1

1

3

The reader is directed through a familiar name in the target culture

ibb

-

-

-

-

 

-

-

-

Use the name, adding a detailed explanation, for example, a footnote.

ic

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Keep one part of the name and translate another part

iic

-

 

-

-

 

-

-

-

Replacement of name by another (beyond the changes required by convention); with two subcategories:

(II)

0

0

2

2

2

1

 

4

Replace the name by another SL name

iia

6

8

9

23

7

8

6

21

Replacement of the name by a TL name plus a footnote

iib

0

3

4

7

4

1

2

7

Replacement of the name by a TL name plus some     information and guidance

iiba

-

-

 

 

-

-

-

-

Replace the name with a footnote

iibb

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

-

Replacement of the name without any explanation

iibc

3

7

3

13

2

3

3

8

Replacement by a different name in the TL

iibd

-

-

 

 

-

-

-

-

Omission of name; with two subcategories:

(III)

0

2

0

2

0

1

0

1

Omission of the name but transfer the sense by other means, for example, by a common noun;

iiia

 

-

 

-

-

-

-

-

Omission of a part of a noun without any explanation

iiib

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

-

Compensation of the omitted part of the noun through explanation or footnotes

iiic

4. Discussion and Results

As the tables and diagrams indicate, the six Persian translators of Woolf’s two novels have used Leppihalme’s strategies in translating the PNs in different propensities. However, this question is raised: how should these frequencies and propensities be related to foreignizing/domesticating strategies and to the translators’ discursive presence, voice, and style in another way?

As mentioned earlier, different strategies have been suggested for translating the PNs by various scholars, Newmark, Baker, Leppihalme, among others. However, translating the PNs, in one way or another, can be connected to two main strategies as proposed by Venuti: foreignizing/domesticating strategies. Interestingly enough, these strategies can be associated with the shifts made by the translators in translation. However, the point is that the preferably optional shifts that the translator makes can be related to some recurring patterns of the linguistic habits of the translator. If these linguistic habits get frequent, they can result in the translator’s style, presence, and, preferably, a voice in the translated texts. In this sense, the strategies used by the translators for translating the PNs, as an aspect of the culture of any society, can reveal a way to the translator’s discursive presence, voice, and style in the translated texts in the TL. One main reason to raise such a claim is that the shifts the translators make, consciously or unconsciously, can be connected to the linguistic habits of the translators through a few recurring patterns they might have elected among the repertoire of their TL. Oddly enough, these recurring patterns of the translators’ linguistic habits might lead to what Baker (1992) has designated as ‘universal features of translation,’ typically taking place in the translated texts rather than the original texts and that is "not the result of interference from specific linguistic systems” (Baker 1992, p. 243). Baker (1996) has identified the four universals of translation: explication, simplification, leveling out, and normalization (see Horri (2009) for a detailed explanation of these universals). Of these universals, normalization can be related to domesticating strategies in that the translator keeps this tendency to ‘exaggerate features of the target language and conform to its typical patterns’ (Baker 1996, p. 183). In this sense, normalization finds a relationship with those strategies Leppihalme has termed ‘replacement’ (II) with its different subcategories (iia, iib, and iic). For instance, the way the six Persian translators of Woolf’s two novels have tried to replace the SL PNs with some TL PNs shows that they have been attempting to normalize the oddity of the SL with the typical patterns of the TL. Generally, as defined by Baker (199219961998) and studied by other scholars, the four universals of translation provide a challenging theoretical framework for studying the translator’s discursive presence, vice, and style in the translated texts.

Interestingly, to show how translating the PNs through the shifts that the translators make can be related to the foreignizing/domesticating strategies as well as the translator’s discursive presence, voice, and style, it is necessary to make a profile for each Persian translator to allow us to come up with some new findings regarding the translator’s voice as defined by Hermans (1996) and Schiavi (1996) and the translator’s style as defined by Baker (19962000), among others. Hopefully, the translator’s profile can give us a snapshot of the personal strategies used by the translator.

4.1 TWS’ Persian Profile

The three Persian translators have translated the three Persian translations of Woolf’s TWS in different periods: Daryush, Najafipour, and Ghebraei. 

 

image

Figure 2Daryush’s profile

Also, Daryush has tried to keep the writer’s original style and voice, using much more foreignizing strategies.

image

Figure 3Najafipour's profile

    As the numbers show, Najafipour has used foreignizing strategies with high propensity. It reveals that he has wanted to keep the original names, keeping the writer’s original style and voice in the TL.

image

Figure 4Ghebreie’s profile

 

Ghebraei’s translation has tried to keep the writer’s original style and voice and put his thumbprint as his style in the translation, using foreignizing and domesticating strategies in different ways. Ghebraei has tried to keep the writer’s original style and voice and his discursive presence and voice in his translation.

4.2 TTL’s Persian Profile

As for its Persian translations, TTL has been translated thrice by different translators: Bejaniyan, Hosseini, and Keyhan. The translators have used the following procedures:

 

image

Figure 5Bejaniyan’s profile

As the numbers show, Bejaniyan has used foreignizing strategies with high propensity. It reveals that she has wanted to keep the original names, keeping the writer’s original style and voice in the TL.

image

Figure 6Hosseini’s profile

As for Hosseini’s translation, he has tried to keep the writer’s original style and voice and put his thumbprint as his style in the translation, using foreignizing and domesticating strategies differently.

image

Figure 7Keyhan’s profile

As the diagrams show, the translators have used both foreignizing/domesticating strategies with various propensities. Compared with the other two translators, Hosseini has tried to keep the writer's original voice and discursive presence and voice in his translation. 

Now, comparing the strategies used by the three Persian translators of TWS, we can see that Najafipour has primarily used foreignizing strategies, and Ghebraei has used foreignizing and domesticating strategies, though with different propensities. Hence, Ghebraei seems to use normalization more than Najafipour. Such a claim can be said for both Bejanyian’s and Hosseini’s translations, respectively: Bejanyian shows a tendency to leave the original text as it is and make it sound foreign (no mention of the fact that how she has changed the overall meaning of the original text at the macro-level); Hosseini shows a clear pattern of domestication or normalization. Hence, Hosseini can be said to normalize more than Bejanyian. Both Daryush and Keyhan have tried to keep the middle ground in using the strategies though they have shown a tendency to foreignize strategies with a higher propensity. Oddly enough, some findings of this paper can be compared with what Bosseaux (2000) has found regarding two French translations of Woolf’s TWS.

Regarding Venuti’s two strategies, sometimes the translators, by adding strange and unfamiliar elements such as translating the PNs literally without giving further explanation, have tried to both familiarize and defamiliarize their translation, making the process of reading their translations both easy and difficult for the Iranian readership, thereby revealing both the original writer’s voice and style as well as their discursive presence and voice in the translated text. However, some believe that foreignization, such as transliteration of the original words, preserves the spatial sense of the original text. Others believe that these elements expose the reader to the words of the TL and facilitate the discovery of the meaning of the words according to the context of the translated text. It seems that it is possible to find some relationships between the strategies used by the translators and their discursive presence, voice, and style in the translated texts.

5. Conclusion

It may be argued that the six translators’ tendency to both keep and change the characteristics of the SL and the TL through, for example, preserving phonetic and written form on the one hand, and replacing a name with a similar name on the other, could show both the writer’s style and the translators’ discursive presence, voice and style. In general, the whole point of the translator’s stylistics is that the translator has to make some changes, engravings, and manipulations to convey the author’s stylistics, which results in the translator’s stylistics. The translator should preserve his style to recreate the author’s style in the TL. Moreover, the main point behind the translator’s stylistics goes back to the presence or absence of the translator in the translated texts.

This paper tried to study the six translators’ discursive presence, voice, and style in the Persian translations of Woolf’s TWS and TTL by examining the way these translators have used different foreignizing and domesticating strategies via the optional shifts they have made in the process of translating various categories of the PNs. Such a careful examination allows us to talk about the role and the status of the translator as the main agent of the translation as a social activity, on the one hand, and to promote the status of the translation as the final product of that agent as a creative activity and not a ‘derivative activity’ forcing the translators to stay hidden behind their translations and inferior to the original creator. As far as translation goes beyond translating just the linguistic items of the SL and becoming part of the culture of any society, the translator has this chance to make optional choices to show his strategies. If the optional shifts get frequent, they can show the translator’s discursive presence, voice, and style in his translation. One reason indicates that each translator can produce his specific version of the same text because he can make many choices in his repertoire. 

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Volume 7, Issue 2
2022
Pages 1-32
  • Receive Date: 07 March 2022
  • Revise Date: 07 April 2022
  • Accept Date: 09 April 2022
  • First Publish Date: 09 April 2022