The Effects of the Types of TOEFL (P&P vs. CBT) and Computer Anxiety Level on Iranian EFL Learners' Performance on TOEFL

Document Type: Original Article


Urmia University


This study was particularly concentrating on TOEFL type (CBT vs. P&P) and computer anxiety as independent variables, and test takers' performance as the dependent variable. The two TOEFL types (Paper-and-Pencil and Computer-Based) were given to 40 participants using counter balancing. The interval between the two tests was two weeks. The reason behind choosing this interval and counter balancing was to prevent the practice effect. Three days after the test, the computer anxiety questionnaire was also taken by the same participants. The results showed a high correlation between the scores on the two versions of the test (P&P vs. CBT), also there was no significant difference between the performances of t, and finally, there was no significant interaction between test type (P & high-, low-, and mid-anxious candidates on the two versions of the tesP vs. CBT) and computer anxiety level (high- anxious, low-anxious, and mid-anxious).