The Effects of the Types of TOEFL (P&P vs. CBT) and Computer Anxiety Level on Iranian EFL Learners' Performance on TOEFL

Document Type : Original Article


Urmia University


This study was particularly concentrating on TOEFL type (CBT vs. P&P) and computer anxiety as independent variables, and test takers' performance as the dependent variable. The two TOEFL types (Paper-and-Pencil and Computer-Based) were given to 40 participants using counter balancing. The interval between the two tests was two weeks. The reason behind choosing this interval and counter balancing was to prevent the practice effect. Three days after the test, the computer anxiety questionnaire was also taken by the same participants. The results showed a high correlation between the scores on the two versions of the test (P&P vs. CBT), also there was no significant difference between the performances of t, and finally, there was no significant interaction between test type (P & high-, low-, and mid-anxious candidates on the two versions of the tesP vs. CBT) and computer anxiety level (high- anxious, low-anxious, and mid-anxious).


Alderson, J. C. (1996). Do corpora have a role in language assessment? In J. Thomas & M. Short (Eds.), Using corpora for language research (pp. 248-259). Harlow: London.
Allan, D. (1992). OxfordPlacementTests.Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Beckers, J. J., & Schmidt, H. G. (2003). Computer experience and computer anxiety. Computers in Human Behavior, 19 (6), 785-797.
Beckers, J. J., Wicherts, J. M., & Schmidt, H. G. (2007). Computer anxiety: Trait or state? Computers in Human Behavior, 23, 2851- 2862.
Bozionelos, N. (1997). Psychology of computer use. XIV.: Cognitive spontaneity as a correlate of computer anxiety and attitudes toward computer use. Psychological Reports, 80 (2), 395-402.
Brown, J. D. (1992). Technology and language education in the twenty- first century: Media, message, and method. Language Laboratory, 29, 1-22.
Brown, J. D. (1997). Computers in language testing: Present research and some future directions. Language Learning and Technology, 1 (1), 44-59.
Brown, J. D. (2004). For computerized language tests, potential benefits outweigh problems. Essential Teacher, 1 (4), 37-40.
Burke, M. J., Normand, J., & Raju, N. S. (1987). Examinee attitudes toward computer-administered ability tests. Computers in Human Behavior, 3, 95-107.
Cambre, M. A., & Cook, D. L. (1985). Computer anxiety: Definition, measurement and correlates. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 1, 37-54.
Chapelle, C. A. (2001). Computerapplicationsinsecond language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Chapelle,  C.  A.  (2003).  English  language  learning  and  technology.
Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Charlton, J. P., & Birkett, P. E. (1995). The development and validation of the computer apathy and anxiety scale. Journal of Educational Computing Rresearch, 13 (1), 41-59.
Chou, H. W. (2001). Effects of training method and computer anxiety on learning performance and self-efficacy. Computers in Human Behavior, 17, 51-69.
Christensen, R., & Knezek, G. (2000). Internal consistency reliabilities for 14 computer attitude scales. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 8 (4), 327-336.
Chua, S. L., Chen, D., & Wong, A. (1999). Computer anxiety and its correlates: A meta-analysis. Computers in Human Behavior, 15 (5), 609-623.
Cohen, B. A., & Waugh, G. W. (1989). Assessing computer anxiety.
PsychologicalReports, 65, 735-738.
Crook, C. (1994). Computers and the collaborative experience of learning. London: Routledge.
Crook, C. (1996). Schools of the future. In T. Gill (Ed.), Electronic children: How children are responding to the information revolution (pp. 75-88). London: National Children‟s Bureau.
Dukes, R. L., Discenza, R., & Couger, J. D. (1989). Convergent validity of four computer anxiety scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 49, 195-203.
Dunkel, P. (1991). The effectiveness research on computer-assisted instruction and computer-assisted language learning. In P. Dunkel (Ed.), Computer-assisted language learning and testing: Research issues and practice (pp. 5-36). New York: Newbury House.
Dyck, J. L., & Smither, J. A. (1994). Age differences in computer anxiety: The role of computer experience, gender and education. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 10, 239-248.
Erickson,  T.  E.  (1987).  Sex  differences  in  student  attitudes  towards computers (Doctoral dissertation). Berkley: University of California.
Harrison, A. W., & Rainer, R. K. (1992). An examination of the factor structures and concurrent validities for the computer attitude scale, the computer anxiety rating scale, and the computer self-efficacy scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52, 735-745.
Heinssen, R. K., Glass, C. R., & Knight L. A. (1987). Assessing computer anxiety: Development and validation of the computer anxiety rating scale. Computers in Human Behavior, 3 (1), 49-59.
Hemby, K. V. (1998). Self-directedness in nontraditional college students: A behavioral factor in computer anxiety. Computers in Human Behavior, 14, 303-319.
Kernan, M. C., & Howard, G. S. (1990). Computer anxiety and computer attitudes: An investigation of construct and predictive validity issues. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 50, 681-690.
Laguna, K., & Babcock, R. L. (1997). Computer anxiety in young and older adults: Implications for human-computer interactions in older populations. Computers in Human Behavior, 13, 317-326.
Lalomia, M. J., & Sidowski, J. B. (1993). Measurements of computer anxiety: A review. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 5, 239-266.
Lankford, J. S., Bell, R. W., & Elias, J. W. (1994). Computerized versus standard personality measures: Equivalency, computer anxiety, and gender differences. Computers in Human Behavior, 10, 497-510.
Littleton, K., & Hoyles, C. (2002). The gendering of information technology. In N. Yelland & A. Rubin (Eds.), Ghosts in the machine: Women’s voices in research with technology (pp. 3-32). New York: Peter Lang.
Littleton, K., & Light, P. (Eds.). (1999). Learning with computers: Analyzing productive interaction. London: Routledge.
McDonald, A. S. (2002). The impact of individual differences on the equivalence of computer-cased and paper-and-pencil educational assessments. Computers and Education, 39, 299-312.
Mahar, D., Henderson, R., & Deane, F. (1997). The effects of computer anxiety, state anxiety and computer experience on users‟ performance of computer based tasks. PersonalityandIndividualDifferences, 22 (5), 683-692.
Marcoulides, G. A. (1989). Measuring computer anxiety: The computer anxiety scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 49, 733-739.
Maurer, M. (1994). Computer anxiety correlates and what they tell us: A literature review. Computers in Human Behavior, 10, 369-376.
Meier, S., & Lambert, M. E. (1991). Psychometric properties and correlates of three computer aversion scales. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 23, 9-15.
Morrow, P. C., Prell, E. R., & Elroy, J. C. (1986). Attitudinal and behavioral correlates of computer anxiety. Psychological Reports, 59, 1199-1204.
Neu, J., & Scarcella, R. (1991). Word processing in the ESL writing classroom: A survey of student attitudes. In P. Dunkel (Ed.), Computer-assisted language learning and testing: Research issues and practice (pp. 169-187). New York: Newbury House.
Phinney, M. (1991). Computer-assisted writing and writing apprehension in ESL students. In P. Dunkel (Ed.), Computer-assisted language learning and testing: Research issues and practice (pp. 189-204). New York: Newbury House.
Pope-Davis, D. B., & Vispoel, W. P. (1993). How instruction influences attitudes of college men and women towards computers. Computers in Human Behavior, 9, 83-93.
Powers, D. E., & O‟Neill, K. (1993). Inexperienced and anxious computer users: Coping with a computer administered test of academic skills. EducationalAssessment, 1, 153-173.
Powers, D. E. (1999). Test anxiety and test performance: Comparing paper-based and computer-adaptive versions of the GRE general test. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.
Reid, J. (1986). Using the writer's workbench in composition teaching and testing. In C. W. Stansfield (Ed.), Technology and language testing (pp. 167-188). Washington, DC: TESOL.
Reznich, C. B. (1996). Applying minimalist design principles to the problem of computer anxiety. Computers in Human Behavior, 12, 245-261.
Rosen, L. D., Sears, D. C., & Weil, M. M. (1987). Computer phobia. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments and Computers, 19 (2), 167-179.
Rosen, L. D., & Weil, M. M. (1995). Computer anxiety: A cross-cultural comparison of university students in ten countries. Computers in Human Behavior, 11, 9-31.
Rosen, L. D., & Weil, M. M. (1996). Psychologists and technology: A look at the future. Professional Psychology Research and Practice, 27, 635-638.
Rozell, E. J., & Gardner, W. L. (2000). Cognitive, motivation, and affective processes associated with computer-relate performance: A path analysis. Computers in Human Behavior, 16, 199-222.
Scimshaw,  P.  (Ed.).  (1993).  Language,  classrooms  and  commuters.
London: Rutledge.
Simonson, M. R., Maurer, M., Montag-Torardi, M., & Whitaker, M. (1987). Development of a standardized test of computer literacy and a computer anxiety index. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 3, 231-247.
Smith, B., & Caputi, P. (2001). Cognitive interference in computer anxiety. Behavior and Information Technology, 20, 265-273.
Stricker, L. J., Wilder, G., & Rock, D. A. (2004). Attitudes about computer-based test of English as a foreign language. Computers in Human Behavior, 21 (1), 37-54.
Taylor, C., Krisch, I., Eignor, D., & Jamieson, J. (1999). Examining the relationship  between  computer  familiarity  and  performance  on computer-based language tests. Language Learning, 49(2), 219-274.
Torkzadeh, G., & Angulo, I. E. (1992). The concept and correlates of computer anxiety. Behavior and Information Technology, 11, 99-108.
Vispoel, W. P., Rocklin, T. R., & Wang, T. (1994). Individual differences and test administration procedures: A comparison of fixed-item, computerized-adaptive, and self-adaptive  testing. Applied Measurement in Education, 7 (1), 53-79.
Vogel, L. (1994). Explaining performance on P & P versus computer mode of administration for the verbal section of the graduate record exam. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 11 (4), 369-383.
Weil, M. L., Rosen, L. D., & Wugalter, S. E. (1990). The etiology of computer phobia. Computers in Human Behavior, 6, 361-379.
Wilder, G., Mackie, D., & Cooper, J. (1985). Gender and computers: Two surveys of computer-related attitudes. Sex Roles, 13, 215-228.
Woodrow,  J.  E. J. (1991).  A  comparison  of  four  computer  attitudes scales. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 7, 165-187.
Volume 1, Issue 2
July 2012
Pages 35-58
  • Receive Date: 23 November 2018
  • Accept Date: 23 November 2018